Tuesday, 18 December 2012

the mistake of using singpots



CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1  Background of the Study
Education is realized effort to help people get knowledge and self- development optimally in and property. Therefore ideal education is which able to meet human resources demands in facing the globalization era.
It has been known widely that knowledge of foreign language, i.e. English is of prime importance in this globalization era. People are providing with endless information from mass media, television, and radios, newspaper and scientific report. Without mastering foreign language, especially English, it is impossible for us to catch the growth and development of scientist and technology in the world.
The role of English often affects the educational purpose of teaching the language. In some countries like Singapore, a student supposed to be able to speak and write English. In Indonesia, English is a foreign language which is though in school and becomes a compulsory subject in junior high school (SLTP/MTS), senior high School (SMU/ SMK/MA) and even universities. (P. Newmark, 1994)
English should be though seriously in school to provide students with optimum proficiency as a means of getting science and technology.
It is undeniable that one of the language skills often reported as most wanted by our students from elementary to graduate school is writing. Writing is an advanced skill. It needs some criteria to be good writer. The more practice he or she has, the better the writing will be. Naturally, writing acquired later than speaking. A new born baby cries not writes, suggesting that while speaking is practically a skill possessed by all, writing possessed by few. Even, for university students in Indonesia, they face obstacles when doing the last assignment or thesis because they have lack of writing practice beside research itself.
Beside on the TOEFL and IELTS seminar conducted in Indonesia daily News Paper a couple months ago, Reform No 22, 16 November 1999 the main obstacle faced by Indonesia students is writing. In term of writing, they get low score. Many Indonesia students who are studying overseas get difficulties when they are assigned to write paper or handout for their course because of their weakness in writing skill. Writing Experts, however, believe that writing is teachable and learned in correct manner. If it is taught in correct manner, it will make the students have a better skill in writing.
According to the Kennedy (1990:88) the ability on language is closely related to the ability to think. Some think some one’s language reflects to his/her could think. This ability might be owned with regular practice and systematic guidance, and so the ability of writing. The ability to write is not anything inherited genetically it, however a process of leaning and regularity to practice. This case relates closely to ability of reading. A good writer usually is good reader.
Ability to present the agreed spelling chooses the right words and makes effective sentences, is not guaranteed completely for some one to write. Contributing ideas or opinion, we are demanded to be able to conjunct one sentence to another in cohesive unity. The relations indicate structurally is united by language and logical cohesion. In writing or composing the united will be actualized in paragraph form.” Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary (2000:1343).
Based on the reason above, the writer will conduct research the use of signposts writing on the tenth year student’s at senior high school of MA Arrahmah jaddung Sumenep.
1.2  Statement of the problem
This research would like to answer some   statement of problem as follow:
1.2.1 To find each activity of tenth year student’s senior high school   Arrahmah Jaddung Sumenep especially in using signposts of writing.
1.2.3 To find in what extend the students are able to write.
1.3  Scope and The limitation
The scope of this study is the use of signpost in writing ability for the tenth year’s students MA Arrahmah Desa Jaddung Sumenep and limits on the use of Comma, period, Capital, Paragraph and unity between paragraphs.
1.4  Significance of Study
The significance of this study is as the following:
1.      Give a solution for learning problem particularly in writing ability using signposts.
2.      To be medium of knowing the students writing ability

1.5  Definition of Key Term
1.  Writing
Ahmadi (1990:53) said that writing is an important medium to express opinions and communicate ideas. They need gradually increase in line with new media development for public communication.
     2. Ability
According to the Kennedy (1990:88) the ability on language is closely related to the ability to think. Some think some one’s language reflects to his/her could think. This ability might be owned with regular practice and systematic guidance, and so the ability of writing. The ability to write is not anything inherited genetically it, however a process of learning and regularity to practice. This case relates closely to ability of reading.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE RELETED LITERATURE
2.1 Writing
Ahmadi (1990:53) said that writing is an important medium to express opinions and communicate ideas. They need gradually increase in line with new media development for public communication. Therefore, continuous writing practices become an important part of school curriculum design, and the central point of English teaching. One way to have good writing ability is through writing scientific paper. Ideally, students are also given opportunity to express their desire as much as possible. Although it requires class discipline based on freedom, they are also motivated through writing.
During the students learnt at school, writing ability can not be separated from all learning process. So, they have to own knowledge deeply dealing with their writing idea. Nevertheless, in facing writing task, students consider that it is heavy load. This bad prediction comes from their conviction because writing activity needs much energy and as long as time to pay attention for it. In edition, it needs skill which not all students own it. The advanced of writing activity. According to Akhmad at ah 1994:01)
That the Advantages of it as follow:
  1. By doing writing activity we can know more our capability and our potential, and we how far our knowledge. That all can be proved by developing the topic of composition and using signposts in paragraph because we can not pour our knowledge existing in mind promptly, when we are forced to make a composition, it is doe to the lack of experiences and exercise in making it.  
  2. Advantages of writing activity we are that can exercise our mind in thinking continually, because we find many events in our life. Then, we combine it or compare with the real event. It need much knowledge and accurate information then, we express and organizes the ideas systematically by writing. Sooner or later, we can give our opinion community result from combining the real events.
  3. There are three kind of composition and we have to be able to make them. The first one is containing of composition and the second one is the aspect of the language while the third is the technique of writing.
It is true that human ability is complex. Although he/she has much knowledge and brilliant skill to write a composition correctly, it is very hard to get good point, we have to master the basic rules and regulation to create the good composition Such as a selecting good topic and giving limitation for it beside that we have to know to put signposts in writing and also how to develop it from sentences into paragraph which are arranged systematically. It is really hard to do more over in formal writing.
2.2 Process of Writing
It needs enough material and long time to have a good result and it can run well when we do exercise activity. There three steps in writing process; pre-writing, writing step, and revision.
                         
                        Pre- Writing Steps.
There are many things we can do in this step because it belongs to planning and preparing to do writing activity. McKirimon, in- Achadiah, at all (1957: 4) give some of steps:
-          Determining topic
-          Giving A topic
-          Deciding an object of writing and selecting materials
Determining of topic. It is to find thing you have. It comes from some resource wherever from your experiences your knowledge such as reading and conducting observations to environment. But the topic of scientific of writing is concerned with the reality.
Giving a limitation of topic. Sometimes, your topic comes from your own knowledge or our experiences that you have. Then, it is specified to one phrase. And try to it interestingly, because reader will be interested and enjoy when he/she read an interesting topic. The other hand, he/she will be bored with old topic. Topic is stimulation for reader and giving a limitation of topic indicates that you have determined the objective of writing.
Deciding an object of writing. There are two kinds of objective i.e. writing thesis and expression. By knowing them we can do it easily make the pattern of writing on the whole and it’s the requirement and also how to organize it.
Selecting materials. The material of writing is all information or data used to reach the purpose of writing. Sometimes the material consists of events and history, for example, explanation or definition and reality, the relations of cause effect the result of hypothesis and graph numerals or diagram, pictures and so on. All of the materials can be found from experience.
The next is how arrange outline of a composition. It is an important thing in creating a composition because without the outline sometimes our writing is not systematic. And to arrange the outline we have to observe the topic and then look for several things are   related to it and when you begin to arrange it into sentences you have to follow the outline you made.
                        Writing Step
In this step we only explain each item. McKrimon in Achadiah, at. All, 1995:3) illustrated
-          arranging paragraph and sentence
-          selecting words and technique of writing
In developing ideas to be a composition well. It needs language. So, we have to dominate and select some words or expression that can support the idea, so that the reader can understand it. The words are arranged to be phrases, to be sentences and paragraphs. This process must be written whit common spelling and use right punctuation mark and also we have to know how to write a title and subtitle and quotation, footnote and bibliography and all the technique writing.
                        Revision Step
  If we have finished doing all of the writing activity, we go to the revision step because, when we do the writing activity, we can not check the whole writing system. So, you have to go back to check after finishing doing it and be sure that your writing must be deleted or added and mostly, we found many errors in organization and structural rules of our composition.
A person’s ability in communicating language indicates that he has brilliant thought, the smarter he thinks the flu he talks. This ability can be achieved by exercising effectively either in writing or in communication.
            a)     The Theme definition
The terms theme, composition and an essay are often used interchangeably to designate a relatively brief, unified piece of writing on limited subject. Actually, each of these terms emphasizes a different phase of the writing skill, which we are trying to develop. An essay is moderately brief prose discussion of restricted topic. A composition is product of putting together a number of diverse elements (fact, ideas, felling, or attitude) into a single whole. A theme, in a very restricted sense, is the central thought an author is trying to communicate and make meaningful to readers.
b)      Finding a subject
To find a subject we should use our mind with years of experience of the world outside and the individual world within us. Experience in many ways is representative of life, if we fell that we lack subject to write about, it may be that we;
(a)                Have not formed a proper respect for our experience
(b)               Have not developed an adequate method of exploring that experience so that we appreciate is significance fully.
(c)                Have never convinced ourselves of the interest and value of the experience, properly examine and appreciated for other people.
c)       General exploration of subject
After we have found the subject but have not decided just what phase of that subject we are going to treat in our theme, do some hard thinking about it; try to see the whole picture. This process (taking the long view) is essential to any kind of good thinking, of course. If our subject is race prejudice, for example, and we want to avoid setting down only merest threadbare common place, try to find at least tentative answer to such question as these.
d)      Limiting a subject
Since every the writer must write some authority on his subject, limiting a subject properly is very important. Unless the subject is cut down to manageable size, the reader will not find what may be called the “authority of detail”; and as a result of it lack of confidence in the author, the process of communication will deteriorate.
Actually, the more a person knows about the subject, the more he will insist on writing only a limited phase of it. Thomas Henry Henley, for example, even thought he was profound student of scientific essays on a piece of chalk.
The process of cutting a subject down to manageable size might be diagramed as an introverted pyramid. For example:
The American Indian
The present state of the American Indian
The present state of the Navahos
The present state of the Navahos of Arizona
A day spent with the Navahos of Arizona
The Art and Crafts of the Navahos Of
Arizona:
Report of the pleasant day’s
Visit 


 




e)       detailed exploration of subject
Once we have limited our subject sharply, see to it that, within the limits we have set, we treat it as completely as our purpose requires, rather write down simply in the order in which they occur to us, any points that seem in any ways related to our subject. Do not even restrict ourselves to those points that we have already thought. Many of the points that we have put down at this time we may decide to omit later.
2.2.3 Organizing the subject
Once we have decided on our writing, arrange our headings in proper order, deciding where we want to begin, where to end, and trough what stages we want to pass. To do properly, we need to make an outline-the literary counterpart of the builder’s blueprint or the artist’s sketch.
Outlines are of there basic types; topic outline, sentence outline, and paragraph outline. Each is the skeleton of the essay purposed.
a)      The topic outline
The topic outline is one in which the headings are indicated by key phrase or single words. In the sentence outline something is said each of the headings; it is clear therefore that this kind of outline represents a more advance stage in the playing of the written a paper.
The example of the topic outline
                        Choosing a profession
I.                   personal equalizations and impediments
A.    aptitudes
B.     temperament
C.     physical characteristics
II.                impersonal considerations
A.    financial status
B.     religious predilections
C.     social consideration
III.             some peripheral matters
A.    geographical considerations
B.     the competitive character of certain profession
C.     the importance of the prestige character of certain profession
D.    the fringe benefits and/or liabilities of certain profession
b)     The sentence outline
The sentence out line is the most complete and most logical. The there types above as its name implies differs from the topic outline in that the key phrase and words of the topic outline are converted into complete sentence. In the sentence outline something is said about each of the endings; it is clear, therefore that this kind outline represents a more advanced stage in the planning of a written paper. To construct sentence outline, we must decide (a) what thesis we are going to support (b) in what way each of our handing will contribute to the support to our thesis.
            c) The paragraph out line
The paragraph out line (which may be constructed of either phrase or complete sentence) is an outline in with outline.
2.2.4 from outline to the theme: the paragraph
A paragraph is group of sentence is which related to each other logically. This means that the sentences follow one another smoothly, so that they make one group of sentences that expresses one idea.
            The paragraph looks back to the smaller we need sentence and forward to large we need to of the total theme. No single paragraph in theme, therefore, can be fully described in isolation. Good paragraphs should be a unified, coherence, fully devolvement unit. But it should also be fluently connected with the paragraph that precedes and follows it. And the paragraph in the theme should have sufficient variety of contraction to prevent a sense of life lessons and monotony.
            We shall shortly define and illustrate methods of achieving these five essential qualities of paragraphs, but first a view words need to be said about basic paragraph basic types.
The basic types of paragraph, classified by their uses in writing, are introductory, concluding transition and substantial.
a) Introductory paragraph
Introductory paragraphs, which may or may not be necessary in short themes, have almost nothing in common except an attempt to each the reader’s attention in any one of a way’s variety. They may open abruptly with a newsworthy item such as the following:
New York’s most difficult bulb-changing job, switching beacon lights on the Empire State Building TV tower 1,472 feet about the pavement, is usually left to John Freewheel, 51 years old, and to John Walsh, 43 steeplejacks enrolled in local 3 of the international brotherhood of workers A.F.L
Here the author is depending of both is depending on both reportage and the question raised about the significance of the facts reported to fix the reader’s attention. The virtue of this type of introductory paragraph is that it comes directly to the point and stimulates the reader’s curiosity.
b) Concluding paragraphs
Concluding paragraph may be unnecessary in short essays because the mind, remembering the chief division set forth in the introductory paragraph, does not need to review the teaks that has been accomplished A very short essay employing a wholly inductive method may require only short thesis statement as a concluding paragraph.
c) Translation Paragraphs
Translation paragraphs are exactly what the etymology of their name implies they are devices for “going across” from one point to another. They are usually brief, and their purpose is not elaborate thought, but rather to lead from one thought to another. The following will illustrate the nature and function of transitional paragraph:
The second characteristic of the great school of art is that it introduces in the conception of its subject as much beauty as is possible, consistently with the truth.
d) Substantial paragraphs   
By substantial paragraph we mean those paragraphs which contain the substance of what the theme is saying the arguments, the illustrations, the definitions, the descriptions, the narration, and so forth. The other three types, however impotent they may be to the structure of a paper and however skillfully they should be handled, are mare “frames” designed to hold the substantial paragraph. 
Substantial paragraphs should process certain internal and external qualities.  Internally, these qualities are (1) unity, (2) coherence, and (3) adequate development. Externally that is, considered in relation to other paragraphs in the same paper – they are (4) fluency of translation.
1. Unity within paragraphs
A paragraph is unified when every one of its sentence help develop one single ideas or impression. A paragraph may be said to have a reason for being when it contains a segment or portion of the author’s though which, for purposes of the impression persuasion, or conviction.
To indicate that a paragraph is separated unit in the whole composition, each new paragraph is indented. In this way the writer informs the reading that some thing has been completed and that something new is about to begin, this does not necessarily mean, of course, that the new points are equal in importance.
2. Coherence within paragraph
Well unified paragraph will be necessary coherent, that is the sentence will be also closely kited together that the reader never read blindly or distractedly, but recognizes at all times the basic structural patent being followed. The structural patent or design of paragraphs may, and indeed should, very widely, as we shall see, but within an adopted design, the writer owes it to the reader to move with logical case.
Some of the devices for achieving coherence within paragraphs are (a) enumeration (b) reference of pronoun, (c) use of such connectives as sentences modifiers and initial co-ordinations conjunctions, (d) reparation of words, phrase, or ideas, and (e) parallel grammatical e1structure.
3. Adequate paragraph development
Writing is such an individual, personal affair that to impose on it a rigid pattern is to stifle and kill it. Adequate paragraphs development in one sense. A write is stressing to make statement of a part of his whole subject. The paragraphs must be long enough to give support to what we say.
4. Translation between paragraphs     
Closely-knit sentences within paragraph are essential to the coherence of individual paragraphs. A comparable coherence is demanded by the total theme, and this requires fluent transition from paragraphs. Such transitions are usually achieved by the parallel structure of topic sentences or by high verbal connections.
2.2.5. Paragraph patterns
By arrangement we mean the process of putting facts or ideas into a certain order. The following are five traditional patterns:

a)      The chronological
Writing development with chronological order is used through history explaining process, originality, and personal curriculum vitae.
b)     The spatial
The spatial is to express place or relation with space and time to operate it often is used with time chronology.
c)      The casual
The casual is depend out relation between two cases or more it means that a result will happen if the cause precedes, the relation is a similarity to chronological time.
d)     The inductive or reductive
Inductive and deductive are terms more generally understood in their application to logic than as paragraph patterns. In logic, induction means a conclusion-or the method of reaching a conclusion- based on a particular set of observable facts. Indeed, the key question for the indicative thinker is always this: what are the facts? Deduction, on the other hand, is a conclusion –or a general concept to a particular case. The key question for the deductive thinker is this; is the conclusion implicit in-can it be deductive from the premises?
      An inductive paragraph, then, is one, which moves from the particular to the general: a conclusion is arrived at on the basis of the particular set of observed facts on which the conclusion in based from the substance of the paragraph.
e)      The climatic ( from less important to more important )
A composition could be improved based on the importance of one opinion presented. From less important the requirements of a hypothesis should be expressed as clear as possible and is supported with the simple sentence. More important is arranging opinion frame based on a theory used deductive guideline.
      By the development we mean the method by which a writer elaborates the central idea of it paragraphs and give it authority of detail. The following are among the most common methods of development.
a)      Illustration and example
The Americans were an educated, informed, self-reliant, and resourceful people, and the Civil War armies undoubtedly boasted the highest level of intelligence of any armies in modern history up to that time. It took foreigners to remark this quality, however; Americans themselves took it for granted everyone, as both Dicey and Trollops remark in wonder, on the war, slavery, politics and everything else; almost their most striking quality. This resourcefulness appeared in Grant who kept at it until he found the road to the Vicksburg; it appeared in lee, who was able to adjust his plans to his shifting opponents, and to count on the understanding and cooperation of his lieutenants; it appeared in the engineers, who build dams and bridges, laid railroad tracks or tore them up solved problems of transport and supply that appeared insoluble; it appeared in the privates of both armies, who improvised breastworks or camp shelter, foraged  for food and supplies, chose their own officers ,voted in the field, provided heir own newspaper ,theatricals., and religious services, and often fought their own battles whit such weapons as they could piece together. it appeared, too, in civilians, especially in the south, who managed some who  to improvise most the weapons of war and the essentials of domestics economy ,to make do whit such labor and such materials as they had and to hold society together trough four years of strife and want
        

Commager’s method here is a selective one .he attributes to the American peoples of the mid-nineteenth century several qualities. He then chooses one that qualities-resource fullness-and illustrates it trough examples oh how individuals and groups confronted the crises of the civil war-grant, lee, the engineer, the privates, the civilians. Since he is talking about the American people as a whole, he chooses example that apply al most equally to the north and to the south. And by illustrating in the details is contention that the American was resourceful, he makes more readable to the reader his other contention-that they were educated informed, and self-reliant.
b) Comparison or contrast
In the case the writer has efforts to show the compression and contras between two cases-which is able to compare their case degree. And the cases have similarity and difference appeal to authority.
c) Appeal to authority
Appeal to author is the staple method of research writing. In using this method, however, the writer should be very careful about their principles; first, he/ she should not let his own thesis and his or her own style becomes submerged under the weight of borrowed opinions or statistic.
d) Descriptive detail

As the second half of the nineteenth century began, New York became a metropolis. The” empire city”, strangers called at they were awed by the splendor of its hotels and theatre, its costly, magnificent stores. They were astonished by the incessant torrent of traffic. The daylong, nightlong surge and roar of more than five hundred thousand people .to many of them, New York seemed a city of crowds and carnival-breezy, recklessly extravagant , perpetually bent on pleasure. The bright gaslights of bars and restaurants and hotel threw a glare over Broadway until well toward dawn. The rumble of omnibuses and the clatter of hackney –coaches were never stilled. New York was a city where men made such incredible.  
Fortunes that a new word, “millionaire” was one everybody’s lips. Two things gave it a quality, a flavor that was unique, and New Yorkers were proud of both. Nowhere else was the tempo if life as fast. And the only permanent characteristic of New York was continuous change. From week to week, almost from day to day, the look of the city was constantly being transformed.
To the naked eye there is nothing visible-the water seems clear, but when I  Enlarge the diameter of magnification I lift the veil on another world, and there swim into view a dozen minute lives, oval little beings covered with curving lines, giving the appearance of wandering fingerprints. In some lights these are iridescent and they then are oval well deserve the name of Opalina as for their personality, they are oval and rather flat; it would take one hundred of them to stretch and inch; they have no mouth and they are covered with a for of flagella with which they whip themselves thorough the water, indeed the whole of their little selves consist if a multitude of nuclei, sometimes as many as two hundred , exactly a like- facial expression profile, torso, limbs, pose, all are summed up in rounded nuclei , partly obscured by a mist of a vibrating flagella

Both authors are describing something that proved curious to them: Morris, New York City a century ago; Beebe, an observation through his microscope. Each author gives evidence of his interest in and surprise over his subject. Each has conveyed his effect by moving swiftly forms detail one of the best means of making descriptive writing effective
e) Analysis
To analyze is to break up a whole (concepts, an object) in to its constituent parts. Here the author-in a style, which is as “studiedly informal” as the group he is, analyzing-is somewhat ornamental and by no men inconsequential group-which he, calls by the name of upper bohemian. Analysis is a relatively simple method of development ann. is very widely used in professional writing-by news analysts, editor, scientists and so forth.
f) Definition
Between definition and analysis there is a very thin line. Analysis is, in fact, one of the techniques of definition. To define something is to explain its nature and qualities; to analyze something is, has been said, to break it up into its constituent part with the purpose of explaining its nature and essential qualities. Definition is from pointing out the limits of a concept-of explaining what it is as well as what it is not. In one sense, of course, the object of all exposition, or explanation, is definition.
2.3 The signposts of writing
        Correct punctuation is frequently as important to clear and effective writing as the diction one uses or the tone one adopts. Marks of punctuation are to the eye what inflation and timing are to the ear; and, like language, they indicate whether or not the author has clear command and of his materials. Punctuation, then, is not entirely a set of also and purposive means to better writing. Even though we may frequently lose sight of the reasons and simply fall back on the rules, there are reasons behind punctuation is the writer who uses it to mike his meaning clear and emphatic; and even in instances in which he seems to have a choice among several marks is more appropriate than the others. For an enduring mastery of punctuation, therefore, the student is urged to acquire some mastery of the logic as well as the rules of punctuation.
2.3.1 Comma
Comma is (a) the most frequently used and misused mark of punctuation, (b) the least emphatic mark of punctuation, and (c) always an internal mark of punctuation it has general uses: to separate elements and to set of element. The following six basic principles indicate the correct uses of the comma.
1. Use the comma to separate two independent closures connected by                                                                              a co-ordination conjunction (and, or, not, but, yet, for)
2. Use the comma to separate an introductory clause or long introductory phrase from the reseat of the sentence.
3. Use the comma to separate elements in a series (more than two)
4. Use comma to separate two or more co-ordinate adjectives modifying the same noun.
5. Use commands to set of nonrestrictive, or parenthetical, elements
6. Use the comma to separate elements which, if read together, would obscure the meaning
2.3.2 Semicolon
Semicolon is a mark of foundation that has become standardized very slowly. If you read English author of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, you may decide that they used the semicolon without much discrimination. Contemporary practice has standardized the major used of the semicolon.
               Use a semicolon to separate to independent clause not connected by a co-ordination conjunction (and, or, but, yet, for) if either clause is long and requires internal comma punctuation. Connected by a conjunctive adverb accordingly, also, besides, consequently, furthermore, hence indeed, moreover, nevertheless, therefore. And the last use semicolon to separate clauses or phrases in a series which rewired internal comma punctuation or to which individual emphasis is given.
2.3.3        Colon
Use the colon to introduce emphatically a word, phrase, or clause (or a sire of words, phrases, or clause). In this usage, the colon should follow a complete independent clause.
Use a colon to separate the solution from the body of a letter, the chapter from the verse in a biblical citation, the hour from the minute, the little of a book from the subtitle, and the place of publication from the name of the publisher.
2.3.4        Period
Use a period after declarative sentence and unstressed imperative sentence. Use a period after most abbreviations. Use tree periods (called an ellipsis) to indicate an omission from the middle of quoted passage, four periods when the omission comes at the one of sentence.
2.3.5        Question Mark
Use a question mark after every direct question. Do not use a question mark after indirect question marks after each element in a series in an interrogative sentence if each if individual emphasized. Use question mark in presented after a word, fact or number about which you are us uncertain. Never use question mark in parentheses as a humorous device
2.3.6        Exclamation
Use marks an exclamation mark to express a high degree of suppose or other sudden emotion if a sentence is partly original and partly quoted, place the exclamation mark in said the quotation marks if only the quieted is being emphases.
2.3.7        Dash
Use the dash to indicate a sadden interruption in a sentence or to set off quite abrupt parenthetical element. The dash is more often appropriate to informal (narrative) than to formal writing.
2.3.8        Parentheses
Use parentheses to set of element is a sentence, which are so strongly non-restrictive as to have the character of aside use parentheses to enclose figure of latter’s in animation. Use parentheses to in close figure used for classification.
2.3.9        Brackets
Use breakers to enclose all items inserted quoted material and to enclose all to enclose a parenthesis within a parenthesis.
2.3.10      Capitals
Use capitals at the beginning of each new sentence or like of poetry (unless, that is, the author is of the school of comings, who inside on using lowercase latter). Use capital with proper nouns geographical expressions such as south, north, east and west should be capitalized only when they denote from proper nouns seating their capitals unless they have lost direct identification with the noun from which they are divided, noun like judged, major, governor, uncle and so forth vigor capitals only when they are used as a part of a particular person name: the use of capitals with the president, the king, the pope, and so forth is a mark of courtesy extended to the specific hears of temporal and spiritual states.
            2.3.11  Number
             Figures are currently used much more frequently than words to indicate numbers. Figures are used for dates, for street numbers, for pages of books, for decimals and percentages, for the hour of the day. However, since the treatment of numbers is considered to some extent a matter of style, the following participles are given rather as suggestions than as rules.
Write out ordinary numbers-that is, numbers which are not part of dates, outlines, statistics, and so forth-from one to ninety-nine; use figures for numbers from 100 upwards. Use figures in parentheses after a number which is spelled out only in technical writing or when unusual emphasis is being placed on the precise number. Use figures rather than spelling out numbers whenever (a) the numbers appear with great frequency in a relatively short passage. Be consistent in the style with which you write numbers.    
CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research design
The writer used descriptive research design quantitative (Arikunto, 2002:25). It is description about the problem commonly faces by students in writing and students abilities in writing and students in write at MA Arrahmah Jaddung Sumenep. The writer collected the related literature suitable with discussion in his thesis and he also collects some information from questioner. A finally, the writer will come to conclusion. Considering to the object of the topic is from many literatures and from questioner, in addition to the purpose of observe and to describe the types of research that the writer chooses is than quantitative.  
3.2 population and sample

The population of the study at tenth year student’s of MA Arahmah it is a    senior high school in Sumenep.
The sample 30 students at the first Class of MA-Arrahmah Jaddung Sumenep. The reason for taking all of the students in this take in number of students than 100
3.3  Data Collection
The writers take one instrument in this research it is a writing test.
Writing Test
In this study the writer give writing test to the students. And the writer will collect them to know the mistake   of using signposts of writing. What extent students able to write in using signposts. The writing test was done on Mart 26th 2010. To know the students ability in using signposts of writing.
3.4 Procedure of Data Analysis  
The data analysis used for the writer is descriptive research, the data classified in from of the study result in writing test. The writer use percentage to know the extent the significant of the study can be research.
      The formulated use; P = F x 100%
            N
                                                           
            Where  P = percentage
                        F = frequency
                        N = number of objects 

CHAPTER IV
THE FINDING AND DISCUSSION
4.1 The Research finding
In this section the writer discusses the data obtained from composition.   The   discussion will focus on the data obtained from the problem faced by the students in using signposts of writing.
4.1.1 The Signposts of Writing
Correct punctuation is frequently as important to clear and effective writing as the diction one uses or the tone adopts. Marks of punctuation are to the eye what inflection and timing are to the ear; and, like language, they indicate whether or not the author he a clear commode of his materials. Punctuation, then, is not entirely a set of converting established by grammarians and printers; it is also a logical and purposive means to better writing. Even thought we may frequently lose sight of the reasons, the real master of punctuation is the writer who uses It to mike his meaning clear and emphatic; and even in instance in which he seems to have a choice among several marks punctuation, the competent writer will almost invariable find that, for the point he is trying to make, on marks is more appropriate then the other. For enduring mastery of punctuation, therefore, the student is urgent to acquire some mastery the logic as well.



4.1.2 The mistake faced in signposts  
A. The comma 
The comma is (a) the most frequently used and misused mark of punctuation, (b) the least emphatic mark of punctuation, and (c) always an internal mark of punctuation. It has to general uses; to separate element and two sets of elements.
Based on the writing test, the students who have mistakes in comma can be presented by the data about student’s writing ability especially in comma as follows:
Table 1
The result of writing test in comma
Writing Test
Answer
F
%
The result of writing test about mistaken and correctness in comma
Mistake

Correctness
17

13
56,7

43,3
Total

30
100

The data show that 17 respondents (56, 6%) have mistakes in comma; and 13 respondents (43, 3%) have no mistakes in using comma.
Based on the data above, there are still many students who have mistaken in writing comma. So student must increase their ability in using punctuation mark, comma. Signpost is very important for reader because without signpost especially in using comma the reader fell confuse to read.
B. The capitals
Use capitals at the beginning of each sentence or line2 of poetry. Unless, that is the author is of the school of e.e. Cummings, who insisted on using lowercase letters. Use capital with proper nouns. Geographical expressions such as south, north, east, and west should be capitalized only when they donate a particular area rather than mere direction. Adjectives derived from proper nouns retain their capitals unless they have lost direct identification with the noun from which they are derived. Nouns like judge, major, governor, uncle, and so forth require capitals only when they are used a part of particular person’s name, the use of capitals with the president, the king, the pope, and so forth is a mark of courtesy extended to the specific heads of temporal are spiritual states capitalized the first, last and all important words in titles. Even conjunction and prepositions are capitalized in title (a) when they are at the beginning or end and (b) when they contain five or more latter’s.
On the daises of writing test the students who have mistakes in capitalization can be presented by the data about student’s writing abilities especially in capitalization as follows:




Table 2
The result of writing test in capitalization

Writing Test
Answer
F
%
The result of writing test about mistaken and correctness in capitals
Mistake

Correctness
18

12
60

40
Total

30
100

The data denote that 18 respondents (60%) made mistakes in capitalization, 12 respondents (40%) were correct in capitalization.
Based on the data above there are many students who have mistakes in writing comma. So student must increases their abilities in writing English especially in capitals. The reader fells confuse to read without signpost especially in using capitals. It is important to the teacher to give explains to the student about capitals.
C. The period  
Use a period after declarative sentence and unstressed imperative sentence. Use a period after most observation. Use tree period indicate an omission from the middle of quieted passage, four periods when the end of the sentence.
Based on the writing test student when do mistake in the period could be presented of data about student’s writing abilities especially in capitals as follow:
Table 3
The result of writing test in period
Writing test
Answer
F
%
the result of writing test about mistaken and correctness in capitals
mistake


correctness
19


11
63,3


36,7
Total
30
100

The data exhibit that 19 respondent (63.3%) made mistakes in period,    11 respondents (36.6%) have no mistakes in period
Based on the data above there are many student whose has mistaken in writing the period. So the students have to increase abilities especially in English writing. In order to perfect in the wring materials.
D. Unity within paragraphs 
A paragraph is unified when every one of its sentences helps develop one single idea or impression. A paragraph may be said to have a reason for being when it contains a segment or portion of the author’s thought which, for purpose of the impression persuasion, or conviction he or she is trying to achieve, in unites individual.
To indicate that paragraph is separate unit in the whole caption, cache new paragraph indented.
Base on to the writing test student who had mistakes in the unity within paragraph could be presented of data about student’s writing abilities generally in unity paragraph as follow:
Table 4
The result of writing test in unity within paragraph
Writing test
Answer
F
%
The result of writing test about mistaken and correctness in capitals
Mistake
correctness
11
19
36,7
63,3
Total
30
100

The data exhibit that 11 respondents (36.7%) made mistakes in period, while 19 respondents (63.3%) were correct in period.
Based on the data above there are many student who have mistakes in writing unity within paragraphs, so the student have the increase their English especially in unity within paragraph.
E. Paragraph
As shown in the writing test the student who had mistakes in paragraph arrangements can be presented in the following table:





Table 5
The result of writing test in paragraph
Writing test
Answer
frequency
Percent %
The result of writing test about mistake and correctness in paragraph
Mistake
Correctness
9
21
30%
70%
Total
30
100%

The data denote that 9 respondents (30%) made mistakes in paragraph, while 21 respondents (70%) were correct in paragraph.
          Based on the data above there are many students who have mistake in writing in paragraph. So the student must increase their English especially in paragraph. 
4.1.3 Discussion
       The entire finding above imply that the use of signposts student’s writing ability at the first  of senior high school Arrahmah Desa jaddung Sumenep  is low or under average. Most of them show weakness, in signposts especially in capitalization, period, and comma. Other weakness lies in arrangement paragraphs.
       So the teacher have to increase the student’s skill in writing by practicing give a test and the students are understand perfectly how to make good and correct writing. Also,
Motivations and Method which is given to the students and modeling   practices in writing. This is an effort to the students enjoy in writing. By doing all of those things, it is expected that the students have a good understanding both the theories of writing and in their practices.

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSSION AND SUGGESTION
5.1 Conclusion
The following conclusions are based on the finding of the study. Specifically, the teaching of English at M.A arrahmah desa jeddung sumenep is good. The teachers always give motivation or spirit to the students to increase their English writing ability learning hard and always doing practice or exercise.
Based on the finding in chapter IV their English writing ability is low. It can be conclude that the problems face by students in writing the signpost as follows:
1. There are many students who had mistakes in writing period.
2. Moreover there are many students who had mistakes in comma.
3. Also there are many students who had mistakes in semicolon.
4. There are many students who had mistakes in paragraph arrangement especially How to use paragraph.
The statements above imply that the student’s English writing ability is low. It is really important for the student to increase their writing ability because writing is an important medium to express opinions and communicate ideas.
 5.2 Suggestion
On the basis of the discussion of the result and the conclusion some suggestions are provided:
5.2.1 Suggestion for the teacher
The following are some suggestion that might be beneficial to follow, the  teacher should:
1. Improve their English teddy especially in writing
2. Give extra explanations more than before such as how to use signpost,       
Especially in the comma, period, capital, and paragraph arrangements and how to use paragraph.
3. Give motivation or spirit to the students about how to increase their    writing Abilities with study hard and always practices.
4. Make the class more interested in order that they are not bored to study, and give them exercise and homework for every meeting class.
5. Give the kind of learning or teaching design in teaching learning methods.
5.2.2 Suggestion for the students
The following are some suggestion that might be useful to follow, the students should:
1. Study harder especially in writing. And forbidden have shameful feelings when there is subject unclear or not understand.
2. Increase their writing by practice and how to use signpost, especially in the comma, period, capital, paragraph arrangement paragraph.



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