Thursday, 6 December 2012

PARTH OF SPEECH


MUQSITH
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PART OF SPEECH
1. Nouns
3. Verbs.
5. Adverbs.


NOUN
The Noun Jobs
Nouns can do lots of things in sentences. They are probably the most overworked of all eight of the parts of speech.
Nouns have the ability to perform different functions, or jobs, in sentences.
Each time a noun is performing one of these jobs, it still fits the answer to the question, What is a noun?
Let's look at some of the noun jobs.
1. Subjects are nouns that tell us whom or what a sentence is about.
Mary kicked the ball.
2. Direct objects are nouns that receive the action of certain kinds of verbs (transitive active verbs).
Mary kicked the ball.
3. Indirect objects are nouns that receive the direct object.
Mary kicked Jimmy the ball.
4. Objects of prepositions are nouns that come after prepositions in prepositional phrases.
Mary kicked the ball to Jimmy.
5. Predicate nouns ("predicate nominatives") are nouns that rename the subject. They come after linking verbs.
Mary is a soccer player.
6. Object complements are nouns that complete the direct object.
They named the baby April.

Types of Nouns
Do you like apples? I hope so; they’re good for you! Well, as you know, there are many different types of apples (Granny Smith, Golden Delicious, Gala, and McIntosh).
Each kind of apple tastes a bit different, but each is still an apple.
Nouns are similar, only they don't taste as good. Whichever type you're dealing with will have its own characteristics, but they will still be nouns.
That means it still fits our answer to the question, What is a noun? (a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea).
Are you ready to hit me over the head because you're so tired of me repeating that? Good. Hopefully that means it's stuck in your mind.
Here are the different ways to describe or classify nouns. If you would like a more examples of each,
Note that nouns can fit into more than one of these categories. For example, the word cat is a common, concrete, countable, singular noun.
Common: These name general, nonspecific people, places, things, or ideas. They start with a lowercase letter unless they begin a sentence.
Writer, city, park, religion
Proper: These name specific people, places, things, or ideas. They always start with a capital letter.
Victor Hugo, Paris, Disneyland, Christianity
Abstract: These are the opposite of concrete. They name something that you cannot perceive with your five senses - something that does not physically exist.
Happiness, freedom, Christianity
Concrete: These name something that you can perceive with your five senses - something that physically exists.
Cat, chocolate, Martha
Countable: Yep. You guessed it. These can be counted, and they use both the singular and the plural forms. Anything that you can make plural is a countable noun.
Clock/clocks, David/Davids, poem/poems
Uncountable: These guys cannot be counted. Since they cannot be counted, they only use the singular form.
Milk, rice, water
Compound: These are made up of two or more smaller words.
Tablecloth, haircut, applesauce
Collective Nouns: These are singular nouns that refer to a group of things as one whole.
Class, audience, swarm
Singular: These refer to one person, place, thing, or idea.
Box, face, road, ball
Plural: These refer to more than one person, place, thing, or idea. They generally end in with an s.
Boxes, faces, roads, balls
Don't get too bogged down by all of those definitions. Know that they exist, but don't worry about committing all of that to your memory.
Proper Nouns & Common Nouns
Proper
Proper nouns name specific people, places, things, or ideas.
Britney, Paris, Rover, Nike
Since these nouns are naming specific things, they begin with capital letters.
Sometimes, they contain two or more important words.
Britney Spears, Central Park Zoo, Pacific Ocean
If this is the case, both important words are capitalized, and the whole thing is still considered to be one proper noun even though it's made up of more than one word. How about that?

Common
Common nouns are your run-of-the-mill, generic nouns. They name people, places, things or ideas that are not specific.
Woman, city, dog, shoe
Since these nouns are not naming anything specific, they do not need to start with capital letters unless they begin a sentence.
Psst! If you need a refresher on nouns, see the nouns page!
Their Relationship
Every proper noun has a common noun equivalent, but not every common noun has a proper noun equivalent!
For example, dust is only a common noun. There is no specific kind of dust, so it's just common.
What Can They Do?
Nouns can perform many jobs in sentences (subject, direct object, indirect object, object of the preposition, predicate nominative).
Here are some examples of all of these noun jobs.
Subject: The students happily studied grammar.
Diagramming Sentences
Direct Object: The students happily studied grammar.
Indirect Object: They taught their friends grammar.
Object of the Preposition: Their friends smiled with glee.
Predicate Nominative: They were grammar champions!

Collective Nouns
What are collective nouns? Stop right there! Let's not get ahead of ourselves. First, let's recall what nouns are.
Nouns are one of the eight parts of speech. They name people, places, things, or ideas. Read the What is a noun? Page to learn more.
Okay, now that you remember what nouns are, let's get back to the main question!
Collective nouns refer to groups of people, animals, or things. They are one of the categories of nouns.
Here are some examples.
Audience, band, class, club, crowd, collection, committee
family, flock, group, herd, team
Here are some example sentences.
Our class went to the museum today.

The audience clapped wildly at the end of the play.

I love my stamp collection!
A class is made up of a group of students acting as one whole.
An audience is made up of a group of people acting as one whole.
A collection is made up of a group of things (in this case, stamps) acting as one whole. Do you sense a pattern here? I sure do.


Singular or Plural?
Singular means one. Plural means more than one.
What do you think? Are these guys singular or plural? I'll give you a hint. They name things that come together to act as one group.
If you said singular, you're right! (That was very smart of you.)
Even though each of these nouns is made up of many people, animals, or things, collective nouns name the group as a whole, so they are singular nouns.
You can make them plural the same way that you make other nouns plural. Usually, this means adding an -s or -es at the end of the word.
Singular
Plural
class
Classes
crowd
Crowds
family
Families
flock
Flocks
For instance, schools are made up of more than one class of students.
Because of this, we would say that there are multiple classes in a school.
Class is singular, and classes is plural.



Sentence Diagramming
Diagramming sentences is the bee's knees.
Sentence diagrams show us the relationship between words, phrases, and clauses in sentences.
If you've never diagrammed before, the following image might give you a small heart attack. If that is the case, I hope that you quickly regain your health when you realize that if you learn to diagram step-by-step, it's easy, fun, and awesome.
So, nouns can perform many jobs in sentences. Here are some of the noun jobs and how you would diagram them.


A Lovely List of Nouns!

This list of nouns should help you understand nouns a little better. For definitions of the following noun categories, go to the noun page.
What is Noun?
Nouns are words that name people, places, things, or ideas.
Before you look at the list of nouns, I'd like to point out that each noun fits into more than one of the categories below.
For example, the word train is a common, concrete, countable, singular noun. Got it? Good!

LIST OF NOUN

Noun Type

Examples

Common Nouns name people, places or things that are not specific.
man, mountain, state, ocean, country, building, cat, airline
Proper Nouns name specific people, places, or things.
Walt Disney, Mount Kilimanjaro, Minnesota, Atlantic Ocean, Australia, Empire State Building, Fluffy, Sun Country
Abstract Nouns name nouns that you can't perceive with your five sense.
love, wealth, happiness, pride, fear, religion, belief, history, communication
Concrete Nouns name nouns that you can perceive with your five senses.
house, ocean, Uncle Mike, bird, photograph, banana, eyes, light, sun, dog, suitcase, flowers
Countable Nouns name nouns that you can count.
bed, cat, movie, train, country, book, phone, match, speaker, clock, pen, David, violin
Uncountable Nouns name nouns that you can't count.
milk, rice, snow, rain, water, food, music
Compound Nouns are made up of two or more words.
tablecloth, eyeglasses, New York, photograph, daughter-in-law, pigtails, sunlight, snowflake
Collective Nouns refer to things or people as a unit.
bunch, audience, flock, team, group, family, band, village
Singular Nouns name one person, place, thing, or idea.
cat, sock, ship, hero, monkey, baby, match
Plural Nouns name more than one person, place, thing, or idea.
cats, socks, ships, heroes, monkeys, babies, matches

Nouns + Sentence Diagrams = Awesomeness

Seeing a list of nouns is a great way to learn what a noun is.
Sentence diagramming can teach you what a noun does.
Sentence diagramming is a visual way to show how the words in a sentence are related to each other.
Since nouns can do many things in a sentence, the way they are diagrammed depends on the way that they are acting in each sentence.
Here is a diagram of the following noun jobs: subject, direct object, indirect object, and object of the preposition.
Subject: The students happily studied grammar.
Direct Object: The students happily studied grammar.
Indirect Object: They taught their friends grammar.
Object of the Preposition: Their friends smiled with glee.
Predicate Nouns: They were grammar champions!

 

 

 

What Is A Pronoun?

What is a pronoun?
A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun.
he, she, it, they, someone, who
Pronouns can do all of the things that nouns can do. They can be subjects, direct objects, indirect objects, object of the prepositions, and more.
Heck, the word pronoun even has the word noun in it!
Let's look at a few examples.
  • Erik Weihenmayer is a blind mountain climber. (noun)
  • He is a blind mountain climber. (pronoun)
Do you see how the pronoun he took the place of the noun Erik Weihenmayer? We can also put the noun and pronoun in the same sentence.
  • Not only is Erik Weihenmayer a mountain climber, but he is also a motivational speaker.
If we didn't have pronouns, we would have to write that sentence like this.
  • Not only is Erik Weihenmayer a mountain climber, but Erik Weihenmayer is also a motivational speaker.
That doesn't sound good! Thank goodness for pronouns!
If we didn't have them, we would have to keep saying Erik Weihenmayer every time that we wanted to refer to him. (Look! I just used the pronoun him to refer to Erik Weihenmayer!)
So, what is a pronoun? Close your eyes and see if you can remember the definition!


 

Antecedents

What's missing from the following example?
He said, "I'm a great believer in luck, and I find that the harder I work, the more I have of it."
You should be asking yourself WHO is HE? You don't know because I have not given you the antecedent.
An antecedent is the noun that a pronoun is replacing or referring to.
Thomas Jefferson was the third President of the United States. He said, "I'm a great believer in luck, and I find that the harder I work, the more I have of it."
Now you should know whom I am talking about because I have provided the antecedent for he, Thomas Jefferson.
Do you want to hear something strange? Not all pronouns have antecedents! Sometimes we don't know whom exactly we are talking about.
Someone broke my vase!
You might be able to use that to your advantage.
Mom, someone broke your vase.
It certainly wasn't YOU, right?


Warning!

Knowing the above information and looking at this list of pronouns should be enough for you to answer that burning question, "What is a pronoun?"
If you want more in-depth information, keep reading to learn about the different types of pronouns, but don't get bogged down. Just knowing what we've covered so far might be all that you need right now.
Got it? Good.




Types of Pronouns

There are many different types of pronouns. Below you will find a short description and a few examples of each. For more examples, see the list of pronouns.

Personal Pronouns

Here are the personal pronouns.
I, me, we, us, you, she, her, he, him, it, they, them
For each of these pronouns, we can tell the...
  • Person (Who is speaking?)
  • Number (Is the pronoun singular or plural?)
  • Gender (Is the pronoun masculine, feminine, or neuter?)
For instance, she is third person (the person being spoken about), singular, feminine while we is first person (the people speaking), plural, neuter.


Relative Pronouns

These little guys introduce relative clauses (dependent adjective clauses).
This is the cookie that I want to eat.
That refers to the noun cookie, and it introduces the relative clause that I want to eat.


Demonstrative Pronouns

There are only four demonstrative pronouns!
this, that, these, those
We use these to point out particular people or things.
Sometimes, those words are used before nouns. In those cases, they are adjectives, not pronouns. (Remember, adjectives describe nouns.)
Bring me that book. (adjective)
Bring me that. (pronoun)


Indefinite Pronouns

The prefix in- means not. Indefinite pronouns are not definite. We don't know whom or what these refer to!
anyone, something, all, most, some
Someone yelled my name. (Who? We don't know.)
Everyone looked at me. (Who exactly? We don't know.)
When indefinite pronouns are used before nouns, they are actually acting as adjectives, not pronouns.
Both people smiled at me. (adjective)
Both smiled at me. (pronoun)

Indefinite Pronouns

What are indefinite pronouns? Before we tackle this subject, let's just be sure that you have a firm grasp on pronouns, shall we?
Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns. Did you already know that? Okay, here we go.
Indefinite pronouns do not refer to a definite or specific person or thing.
The prefix in- comes from Latin, and it means not. Knowing that can help you remember that they do not refer to something definite.
They still fit the definition of a pronoun, though. That means that they take the place of nouns.
Here are some examples.
each, everything, one, everyone, someone,
anything, both, many, several, few, all, most, none, some, much

Antecedents?

Antecedents are the words that pronouns refer to.
Indefinite pronouns do not usually have antecedents.
Example:
Both of the girls ran through the park.
Both does not have any word that it is referring back to. So, it has no antecedent.
Example:
Someone gave me a gift.
Someone is not referring to any other word in the sentence. This means that it has no antecedent.
But there are exceptions!
Here is an example of an indefinite pronoun used with an antecedent. Notice that the antecedent comes one sentence before the pronoun.
Example:
The students cheered. Some even threw confetti.
The pronoun some is referring to the noun students. This means that students is its antecedent.

 

As Adjectives

When these pronouns are used right before nouns, they are actually acting as adjectives, not pronouns. How do you like that?!
Remember that pronouns take the place of nouns and adjectives describe nouns.
Example:
Both flowers are lovely.
Both is telling us about the subject, flowers. It is not taking the place of flowers. It is modifying it. Because of this, it is acting as an adjective.
But we could say...
Both of the flowers are lovely.
And then, both would be acting as an indefinite pronoun.
In this sentence, flowers is acting as the object of the preposition, and both is not modifying it. That means that the pronoun both is the subject, and it has no antecedent.

Start Basic Sentence Diagramming!

Sentence diagramming is a way to show how the words in sentence are related.
Learning diagramming will help you to learn grammar, and you might be surprised to find out that it's kind of fun, too.

Reflexive & Intensive Pronouns

These two types of pronouns end in -self or -selves.
himself, herself, myself, itself
Those words have different names depending on how they are being used.
A reflexive pronoun is used to refer to the subject of the sentence.
I will go to the school myself. (Reflexive)
An intensive pronoun is used to emphasize another noun.
He himself visited the school. (Intensive)

Reflexive Pronouns & Intensive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns and intensive pronouns are kind of like identical twins. They look the same, but they are actually different.

Both of them end in -self or -selves
myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself
ourselves, yourselves, themselves
So, what is the difference between these two pronouns? Let's explore that fascinating question!

Reflexive

These pronouns are objects that are used to refer to the subject of the sentence. They are a necessary part of the sentence.
I made myself a sandwich.
Myself is referring to the subject which is I.
My sister and I bought ourselves popcorn at the movie.
Ourselves is referring to the subjects which, in this sentence, is the two words sister and I.
Notice that these pronouns must be used with an antecedent. An antecedent is the word that a pronoun is referring to.
Since these pronouns always refers to the subject of the sentence, their antecedents will always be the subject.
Got it? Good! Now, it's time for intensive pronouns.

Intensive Pronouns

Intensive pronouns are used to emphasize another noun or pronoun.
That means that they do not need to refer to the subject. They can refer to any old noun or pronoun in the sentence.
I made a sandwich for the President himself.
The intensive pronoun himself is referring to the noun President which is an object of the preposition.
My sister herself paid for my popcorn.
Here, the intensive pronoun herself is referring to sister which is the subject of the sentence. Notice that you could take herself out of the sentence, and it would still make sense.
Since an intensive pronoun is used for emphasis, it is not necessary to the sentence. It does not give us any new information.
You could take out an intensive pronoun from a sentence, and the sentence would still make sense

Interrogative Pronouns

These are pronouns that are found in questions. Another name for a question is an interrogative sentence. Interrogative pronouns often begin interrogative sentences.
what, whom, whose, who, which
Who stole the cookie from the cookie jar?
Which jacket should I wear?

Possessive Pronouns

Possessive pronouns show ownership. Another word for ownership is possession.
his, hers, your, theirs
When possessive pronouns are used before nouns, they are actually being used as adjectives, not pronouns.
Our family has vacation next week. (adjective)
That car is ours. (pronoun)

Possessive Pronouns

Possessive pronouns show ownership.
How good is your vocabulary? Let's take a peek into the dictionary...
Possess: to have, to own
That was short.
Knowing what possess means will help you remember what these kinds of pronouns do. They show possession.
Sometimes they are used alone, and sometimes they are used before nouns.

Pronoun

Singular
Plural
Used Alone
mine
yours
his, hers
ours
yours
theirs
Used Before Nouns
my
your
his, her, its
our
your
their

Used Alone

Here are the possessive pronouns that can be used alone.
mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs, whose
When they are used alone, these pronouns can act as subjects, objects, and predicate adjectives.
Example # 1
Yours are the best cookies!
It may sound a little bit strange, but that sentence works.
Yours is the subject of the sentence.
Example # 2
This cookie is mine.
That thing is a sentence diagram. It makes the relationship between the words visible. Cool, huh?
The word mine comes after the linking verb is, and it is describing the subject cookie.
In this sentence, mine is a possessive pronoun acting as a predicate adjective. It comes after the intransitive linking verb is, and it is acting as a predicate adjective modifying the subject.
We can tell that it is acting as an adjective because it answers one of the adjective questions.
Adjective question: Whose cookie?
Answer: mine
It is describing a noun (cookie). Because of this, you can say that this pronoun is actually an adjective. It's like the pronoun is both a pronoun and an adjective! Isn't that versatile?
When these guys act alone, diagram them just like you would diagram any other noun or pronoun.
Since nouns and pronouns can perform many jobs in our sentences, you must first decide which job the pronoun is performing. Then, you'll be able to diagram it like a rock star!
If the possessive pronoun is being used after a linking verb, it is really acting as a predicate adjective.

Used Before Nouns

Here are the possessive pronouns that are used before nouns.
my, your, his, her, its, our, their, whose
These pronouns act as adjectives because they modify nouns.
This is my cookie.
My is helping to tell us a little bit more about the noun cookie.
It is modifying a noun, so it is acting as an adjective.
When these guys are used before nouns, diagram them just like adjectives.
Find the noun that the pronoun is modifying and place the pronoun on a slanted line under that noun.
In this picture, you could place the pronoun anywhere that it says adjective.
To learn more about diagramming sentences, use these grammar exercises.

Apostrophes? Don't Do It!

People often get confused and think that apostrophes belong in these pronouns.
* Those people are totally crazy. It's not true. Don't do it unless you want to look like a fool! *
Incorrect: it's, her's, our's, their's, your's
Correct: its, hers, ours, theirs, yours
Note that the word it's is different from the word its.
It's is a contraction for the two words it is.
Its is a possessive pronoun.

 

Possessive Pronouns

Possessive pronouns show ownership.
How good is your vocabulary? Let's take a peek into the dictionary...
Possess: to have, to own
That was short.
Knowing what possess means will help you remember what these kinds of pronouns do. They show possession.
Sometimes they are used alone, and sometimes they are used before nouns.

Pronoun

Singular
Plural
Used Alone
mine
yours
his, hers
ours
yours
theirs
Used Before Nouns
my
your
his, her, its
our
your
their

Used Alone

Here are the possessive pronouns that can be used alone.
mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs, whose
When they are used alone, these pronouns can act as subjects, objects, and predicate adjectives.
Example # 1
Yours are the best cookies!
It may sound a little bit strange, but that sentence works.
Yours is the subject of the sentence.
Example # 2
This cookie is mine.
That thing is a sentence diagram. It makes the relationship between the words visible. Cool, huh?
The word mine comes after the linking verb is, and it is describing the subject cookie.
In this sentence, mine is a possessive pronoun acting as a predicate adjective. It comes after the intransitive linking verb is, and it is acting as a predicate adjective modifying the subject.
We can tell that it is acting as an adjective because it answers one of the adjective questions.
Adjective question: Whose cookie?
Answer: mine
It is describing a noun (cookie). Because of this, you can say that this pronoun is actually an adjective. It's like the pronoun is both a pronoun and an adjective! Isn't that versatile?
When these guys act alone, diagram them just like you would diagram any other noun or pronoun.
Since nouns and pronouns can perform many jobs in our sentences, you must first decide which job the pronoun is performing. Then, you'll be able to diagram it like a rock star!
If the possessive pronoun is being used after a linking verb, it is really acting as a predicate adjective.

Used Before Nouns

Here are the possessive pronouns that are used before nouns.
my, your, his, her, its, our, their, whose
These pronouns act as adjectives because they modify nouns.
This is my cookie.
My is helping to tell us a little bit more about the noun cookie.
It is modifying a noun, so it is acting as an adjective.
When these guys are used before nouns, diagram them just like adjectives.
Find the noun that the pronoun is modifying and place the pronoun on a slanted line under that noun.
In this picture, you could place the pronoun anywhere that it says adjective.
.

Apostrophes? Don't Do It!

People often get confused and think that apostrophes belong in these pronouns.
* Those people are totally crazy. It's not true. Don't do it unless you want to look like a fool! *
Incorrect:  it's, her's, our's, their's, your's
Correct its, hers, ours, theirs, yours
Note that the word it's is different from the word its.
It's is a contraction for the two words it is.
Its is a possessive pronoun.

Start Diagramming Sentences!

What is a pronoun? Do you know now?

Look! It's a List of Pronouns!

Before you look at the list of pronouns, let's have a quick refresher on the definition of a pronoun.
Quick Refresher:
A pronoun is a word that takes the place of one or more nouns.
If you want more information on these guys, check out the pronouns page.
These tables show a list of pronouns for the following types of pronouns:
personal, relative, demonstrative, indefinite, reflexive, intensive, interrogative, possessive, subject and object

List of Pronouns

Personal Pronouns

These take the place of common and proper nouns.
Singular
Plural
First Person: The person or people speaking or writing
I
me
we
us
Second Person: The person or people being spoken or written to
you
you
Third Person: The person, people, or things being spoken or written about
she, her
he, him
it
they
them

Relative Pronouns

These relate subordinate adjective clauses to the rest of the sentence.
that, which, who, whom, whose, whichever, whoever, whomever

Demonstrative Pronouns

These represent a thing or things.
Singular
Plural
Refers to things that are nearby
this
these
Refers to things that are far away
that
those


Indefinite Pronouns

These refer to something that is unspecified.
Singular
anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, something
Plural
both, few, many, several
Singular or Plural
all, any, most, none, some

These end in self or selves.
Singular
Plural
First Person: The person or people speaking or writing
myself
ourselves
Second Person: The person or people being spoken or written to
yourself
yourselves
Third Person: The person, people, or things being spoken or written about
himself, herself, itself
themselves




Interrogative Pronouns

These are used to ask questions.
what, who, which, whom, whose

Possessive Pronouns

These are used to show ownership.
Singular
Plural
Used Before Nouns These actually function as adjectives. Crazy!
my
your
his, her, its
our
your
their
Used Alone
mine
yours
his, hers
ours
yours
theirs

Subject and Object Pronouns

These are used as either the subject or the object in a sentence.
Singular
Plural
Subjects tell us whom or what the sentence is about.
I
you
she, he, it
we
you
they
Objects: direct objects, indirect objects, objects of prepositions
me
you
her, him, it
us
you
them

Sentence Diagramming
& Pronouns

Sentence diagramming is a visual way to show how the words in a sentence are related to each other.
Pronouns can do many things in a sentence, and the way they are diagrammed depends on the way that they are acting in each sentence.
Here are some of the jobs that pronouns can do: subject, direct object, indirect object, object of the preposition, and predicate noun.

What Is a Verb?

What is a verb?
A verb is a word that expresses an action or a state of being.
As you can see from that definition, there are two main categories of verbs: action verbs and state of being verbs (also known as linking verbs).

Because action verbs and linking verbs are strong enough to be used in sentences all by themselves, they are called main verbs.
I love cheese. I turned the page. (action verbs)
I am a teacher. I turned green. (linking verbs)
But wait! There is also a third category of verbs which doesn't get any glory. They are the helping verbs.
Click here to see a list of all 24 helping verbs and to hear the helping verbs song!
The reason that these guys don't get any of the fame that action and linking verbs get is because they don't stand alone as main verbs.
Helping verbs are always helping either an action verb or a linking verb.
I will play the piano. (helping verb and action verb)
I will be a teacher. (helping verb and linking verb)


Let's look at some examples of verbs!

Action verb with no helping verb
I ate five pizzas!
Helping verb helping an action verb
Now, my stomach will hurt for an hour.
Two helping verbs helping an action verb
Actually, my stomach will be hurting for a few days.

When you have a helping verb along with an action or linking verb, all of those verbs together are called a
verb phrase.

Here are some examples of sentences with verb phrases.

Example: Now, I will eat fruits and veggies.
helping verb
will
main verb (action verb)
eat
verb phrase
will eat

Example: I have been feeling great!
helping verbs
have been
main verb (linking verb)
feeling
verb phrase
have been feeling

What is a verb? Got it all? Here's a summary.
  • There are three categories of verbs (action, linking, helping).
  • Only two can be main verbs (action, linking). Main means that the verb is strong enough to be the only verb in the sentence.
  • Helping verbs are not main verbs. They help action and linking verbs.
  • A helping verb and a main verb working together are called a verb phrase.


The Four Verb Types

So, you now know the answer to the question, "What is a verb?" (It's a word that expresses an action or a state of being!)

You also know that there are three categories of verbs (action verbs, linking verbs, and helping verbs).

For the next little while, we are going to focus on main verbs. So, forget about those poor little helping verbs for a bit, and let's turn our attention to
action verbs and linking verbs.

These two kinds of main verbs can act in four different ways.
Transitive Active
Action Verb

John kicked Jen.
Intransitive Complete
Action Verb

Jen cried.
Transitive Passive
Action Verb

John was kicked.
Intransitive Linking
Linking Verb

Jen felt happy.

1. Intransitive Complete Verbs

These guys are action verbs, so we know that they show action.

This type of verb does not transfer its action to anyone or anything. These verbs make sense without having to transfer action anywhere.
Cats drink. Clocks tick. Buses move.

2. Transitive Active Verbs

These action verbs transfer their action to someone or something.

That means that something or someone is always being acted upon. In our example sentence, Jen is receiving the action kicked - even though she probably doesn't want to be receiving it.

The receiver of the action in this kind of verb is called the direct object. In our example sentence, Jen is the direct object.

Every single transitive active sentence must have a direct object, and the direct object always receives the action.
Cats drink milk. Clocks make noise. I lost my ticket.

Milk is receiving the action of drink. It is what cats drink. It is the direct object.

Noise is receiving the action of make. It is what clocks make. It is the direct object.

Ticket is receiving the action of lost. It is what I lost. It is the direct object.

These verbs are written in the
active voice.

3. Transitive Passive Verbs

These verbs also show action, and they also transfer their action to a receiver.

In transitive active verbs, the receiver was the direct object. In transitive passive verb, the receiver of the action is the subject!
John was kicked. The house was demolished.

Who is receiving the action in those sentences?

John received the action of kick and house received the action of demolished. John and house are the subjects of those sentences.

Notice that we may not actually know who initiated the action. (Who kicked John?) Sometimes we find this out in a
prepositional phrase.
John was kicked by Jen. The house was demolished by the storm.

These verbs are written in the
passive voice.

4. Intransitive Linking

Linking verbs differ from the three other verb types because they are the only verb type that does not express any action.

What do linking verbs do? It's pretty simple. Linking verbs tell us about the state or condition of the subject.

They link the subject of a sentence with either a noun that renames the subject or an adjective that describes the subject.

Nouns that rename the subject are called predicate nouns. Adjectives that describe the subject are called predicate adjectives.
Milk tastes delicious. Clocks are helpful. I am the bus driver!






It may help you to think of linking verbs as an equal sign between the subject and a predicate noun or a predicate adjective.
I am a teacher.
I = teacher
The soup is salty.
soup = salty


Am is linking the subject I with the predicate noun teacher. Is is linking the subject soup with the predicate adjective salty.
This video shows you the difference between a linking verb and an action verb. To see more, see these grammar lesson

List of Verbs

This list of verbs will help you understand verbs a little better. For a more in-depth look at verbs, see the verb page.
Quick Refresher: Verbs are words that show action or state of being.
There are three major categories of verbs: action verbs, linking verbs, and helping verbs (also called auxiliary verbs). Let's check them out!


 

 

 

 

Action Verbs

As their name implies, action verbs show action.

Keep in mind that action doesn't always mean movement.
Talia thought about bears.

In that example, the verb thought does not show movement, but it is still an action verb.

There are many, many action verbs. Here's a small list of verbs that show action.
clean
cut
drive
eat
fly
go
live
make
play
read
run
shower
sleep
smile
stop
sweep
swim
think
throw
trip
walk
wash
work
write

Diagramming Action Verbs

If you've checked out this site much, you know that I think sentence diagramming rules when it comes to teaching and learning grammar.

Sentence diagramming is a way to visually show how all of the words in the sentence are related to each other.

All verbs are diagrammed on a horizontal line after the subject.

A vertical line separates the subject from the verb, and the rest of the sentence depends on the type of verb you are diagramming. Let's look at the different kinds of action verbs!
1. Transitive Active

Certain action verbs called transitive active verbs transfer action to something called a direct object.
Joe kicked the ball. Jim ate the cake.

Kicked and ate are transitive active verbs. Ball and cake are direct objects.

2. Transitive Passive

This type of action verb transfers its action to the subject. Isn't that crazy?
My car was stolen. The house was demolished.


3. Intransitive Complete

This type of action verb does not transfer action to anyone or anything. It is diagrammed in the same way that a transitive passive verb is diagrammed.
I screamed. The dog barked.


Linking Verbs

You can call these either linking verbs or intransitive linking verbs. They link the subject of a sentence with a noun or adjective.
Lana became a famous equestrian.

Became is a linking verb. It is linking the subject Lana with the noun equestrian.

If you count all of the forms of to be as one word, there are 13 linking verbs. Memorize these!
Forms of be
be, am, is, are, was, were, been, being
Other Linking Verbs
appear, become, feel, grow, look, seem, remain, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn

This video shows you the difference between linking verbs and action verbs. To learn more, see these English grammar lessons.

Diagramming Linking Verbs

When you diagram intransitive linking verbs, you can see that they link the subject of the sentence with a noun or an adjective.

Helping Verbs

These do just what their name implies. They help the main verb in the sentence. The main verb will be either an action verb or a linking verb.

The helping verb(s) and the main verb come together to form a
verb phrase.
Greta will love these sausages.


Will is a helping verb. It is helping the main verb (love), which is an action verb. The verb phrase is will love.

There are only 24 helping verbs. Use the following list of verbs and this lovely song to memorize them!

be
am
is
are
was
were
been
being
have
has
had
could
should
would
may
might
must
shall
can
will
do
did
does
having

 

 

 

An Introduction To Modals

Modals are types of auxiliary verbs that show a speaker's attitude about whatever they are expressing.
Examples
can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would
This site has some exercises if you would like to test yourself.
Since they are forms of helping verbs, they must always be used with a main verb (as part of a verb phrase). They are never to be used by themselves.
Examples
I could play the piano for you.
Could is being used with the main verb play.
I will follow you.
Will is being used with the main verb follow.

Form
These are not, "marked for tense." That means that they don't change form based on the tense of the main verb.
They will never end in -ed to show past tense or -ing to show a present participle.
There is also no third person singular form. That means that they will never end in -s.


Subject Verb Agreement
These guys don't follow subject verb agreement.
Example (incorrect) Jonathan can rides the bus.
That sentence is all wrong, but it seems like it should be right!
The singular subject Jonathan means that our main verb rides should end ins. But, that rule does not apply here!
Example (correct) Jonathan can ride the bus.
That's better! There should be no -s after ride.


Making Them Negative
In order to make these negative, you need to add not or another negative between the modal and the rest of the verb.
In these examples, I have underlined the whole verb phrase. Note that the word not is not part of the verb phrase.
Example
I should not watch this movie.
Not is making this statement negative.
You could also make it a contraction, blending the words should and not together.
I shouldn't watch this movie.

Questions
When forming a question, the modal verb comes before the subject, and the main verb comes after the subject.
Examples
Will you take me to the park?
Should Jeremy come with us?

 

Action Verbs Show Action!

You're likely quite shocked to discover that action verbs show action.
Okay, you probably already guessed that.
The question is, do you know what kinds of actions they show? They can show action in three ways, and you're about to learn all of them!


  • A transitive verb transfers its action to someone or something. There are two kinds of transitive verbs: transitive active and transitive passive.
  • An intransitive verb does not transfer its action to someone or something. There is one kind of intransitive action verb: intransitive complete verbs.
Let's take an in-depth look at these three types of verbs!

 

 

 

 

The Three Types of Action Verbs

1. Intransitive Complete

Intransitive complete verbs are action verbs.
The boy laughed.
My sister sneezed.
The dog barked.
Did you know that the prefix in- means not? That is a helpful tidbit when it comes to understanding this verb type.
INTRANSitive complete verbs do NOT TRANSfer action to anyone or anything. They show action, but they are complete all by themselves.
Notice that the boy didn't laugh something, and he was not laughed. That would be strange.
My sister didn't sneeze something* (that would be gross), and she was not sneezed.
* True (Yucky) Story
When I was in second grade, Mr. Penny was reading us one of The Boxcar Children books during story time. I was completely engrossed in the story when suddenly Leah Krentz accidentally sneezed apple onto my leg.
Yes. She sneezed apple. That was gross, and in that case, sneezed was a transitive active verb. You'll be learning about that type of verb next.
Okay, back to the lesson...
The dog didn't bark something, and he was not barked.
As you can see, intransitive complete verbs don't transfer their action to anyone or anything!
Here is how you would diagram an intransitive complete verb.
Cats will meow.
http://www.english-grammar-revolution.com/images/diagramming_exercises_1.jpg

2. Transitive Active

Transitive active verbs are action verbs.
Mark kicked the ball.
The dog scratched its back.
The wind rustled the leaves.
Transitive active verbs are action verbs that Transfer their action to something or someone.
The subject always performs the action with this kind of verb, and the verb's action is always transferred to someone or something.
Look at those example sentences again. Can you see that the subjects are performing the action? Can you see that the verbs are transferring their action? Good!
The someone or something that receives the action with these verb types is called the direct object (ball, back, leaves).
Transitive active verbs need direct objects. It's a fact. They are bound together like mac and cheese or peanut butter and jelly.
So... let's review!
In all of the example sentences, the subjects (Mark, dog, wind) are doing something (kicking, scratching, and rustling) to someone or something (ball, back, leaves).
All of those verbs show action, and they all transfer that action to a direct object. The ball is receiving the kick, the back is receiving the scratch, and leaves are receiving the rustle.
That means that they are all transitive active verbs.
Check out this sentence diagram of a transitive active verb.
The baby kicked the ball.
http://www.english-grammar-revolution.com/images/diagramming_direct_objects_example1.jpg

3. Transitive Passive

Transitive passive verbs are action verbs.
The ball was kicked.
The dog's back was scratched.
The leaves were rustled.
Transitive passive verbs also Transfer their action to someone or something.
But, with this verb type, the subject is the one receiving the action, and sometimes we don't even know who performed the action!
Look at those example sentences. Can you see that the subjects are all receiving the action? Good!
Did you also notice that none of those sentences tell us who or what is performing the action? That's because this kind of verb doesn't have to tell us that information.
If you want to include the doer of the action with transitive passive verbs, you do so in a prepositional phrase that usually begins with the word by.
I'll show you what I mean. Here are those same sentences, but this time, you'll be able to see who or what performed the action.
The ball was kicked by Mark.
The dog's back was scratched by the dog.
The leaves were rustled by the wind.
Did you notice anything else about these verbs? Did you notice that these are made of more than one word?
Transitive passive verbs are formed with a helping verb and a main verb.
So... let's review!
In all of the example sentences, the subjects (ball, back, leaves) are receiving the action.
These types of verbs don't have to tell us who or what is performing the action, but they may do so in a prepositional phrase.
These types of verbs are formed with the help of a helping verb.
Got it? Good!

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