Simple Sentence
Complex Sentence
The book is interesting.
The book that he has read is interesting.
The book: noun (phrase),
that: relative pronoun,
that he has read: adjective clause yang menjelaskan the book. Merupakan klausa karena terdiri dari subject (he) dan verb (has read) dan merupakan adjective clause karena menjelaskan noun.

Rumus Adjective Clause

Complex Sentence:

Subject (+be/verb+Noun/Pronoun) + Adjective Clause

Adjective Clause:

Relative Pronoun +/- S*+V

Keterangan: *Relative pronoun (who, which, that) dapat berfungsi sebagai subject jika tidak ada subject

Fungsi Relative Pronoun pada Adjective Clause

Beberapa fungsi relative pronoun di dalam adjective clause berikut contohnya adalah sebagai berikut.
Relative Pronoun
Contoh Adjective Clause
who, that, which
that was made of cheddar cheese.
coba substitusi dengan “It” (subjective personal pronoun)
whom, that, which, who
whom I want to buy
coba substitusi dengan “it” (objective personal pronoun)
whose house has burned down
coba substitusi dengan “his” (possessive personal pronoun)
*Dapat dihilangkan pada defining relative clause.
 Punctuation (Tanda Baca) pada Adjective Clause
Saat menerangkan subject, posisi adjective clause akan berada di tengah kalimat. Klausa tersebut dapat diapit koma ataupun tidak, tergantung pada penting atau tidaknya informasi tambahan yang dibawanya. Informasi tersebut dinilai essential (penting) atau restrictive jika akan mengubah makna kalimat jika dihilangkan. Pada situasi tersebut, koma tidak digunakan. Klausa yang membawa informasi essential tersebut dinamakan defining clause. Sebaliknya, jika informasi non-essential (tidak penting) atau non-restrictive karena dapat dihilangkan tanpa merubah makna kalimat, maka koma digunakan. Klausa yang membawa informasi non-essential tersebut dinamakan non-defining clause.

Contoh Complex Sentence:

  • Essential: People who chew well may have healthy digestion.
  • Non-essential: Yulia, who does exercise regularly, has a positive body image.

Contoh Adjective Clause

Adapun contoh adjective clause dengan berbagai relative pronoun dapat dilihat pada tabel sebagai berikut.
Relative Pronoun
Contoh Adjective Clause di Dalam Complex Sentence
He is the man who works hard to support their daily needs. (Dia pria yang bekerja keras untuk menanggung kebutuhan sehari-hari mereka.)
Adjective clause  menerangkan noun (the man) yang berfungsi sebagai subject complement.
The woman whom you saw last night is my sister. (Wanita yang kamu lihat tadi malam adalah saudara saya)
Adjective clause menerangkan noun (the woman) yang berfungsi sebagai subject kalimat.
The man whose car is antique works as a lecturer. (The man yang punya mobil antik itu bekerja sebagai dosen.)
Adjective clause menerangkan noun (the man) yang berfungsi sebagai subject kalimat.
Mueeza, which is very faithful, is my cat. (Mueeza, yang sangat setia, adalah kucing saya.)
Adjective clause menerangkan noun (Mueeza) yang berfungsi sebagai subject kalimat.
He rang the bell when I was taking a bath. (Dia membunyikan bel ketika saya sedang mandi.)
Adjective clause menerangkan noun (the bell) yang berfungsi object.
Bandar Lampung is a city where I was born. (Bandar Lampung adalah kota dimana saya dilahirkan.)
Adjective clause menerangkan noun (a city) yang berfungsi sebagai subject complement.
It is the car that I has dreamed for many years ago. (Ini mobil yang telah saya impikan sejak beberapa tahun yang lalu.)
Adjective clause menerangkan noun (the car) yang berfungsi sebagai subject complement.
Semoga bermanfaat dan mohon maaf jika ada kekurangan. Jika ada pertanyaan, komentar, atau masukan, kamu dapat meninggalkannya pada kotak komentar di bawah

The Adjective Clause

Recognize an adjective clause when you see one.

An adjective clause—also called an adjectival or relative clause—will meet three requirements:
  • First, it will contain a subject and verb.
  • Next, it will begin with a relative pronoun [who, whom, whose, that, or which] or a relative adverb [when, where, or why].
  • Finally, it will function as an adjective, answering the questions What kind? How many? or Which one?
The adjective clause will follow one of these two patterns:
relative pronoun or adverb + subject + verb
relative pronoun as subject + verb
Here are some examples:
Whose big, brown eyes pleaded for another cookie
Whose = relative pronoun; eyes = subject; pleaded = verb.
Why Fred cannot stand sitting across from his sister Melanie
Why = relative adverb; Fred = subject; can stand = verb [not, an adverb, is not officially part of the verb].
That bounced across the kitchen floor
That = relative pronoun functioning as subject; bounced = verb.
Who hiccupped for seven hours afterward
Who = relative pronoun functioning as subject; hiccupped = verb.

Avoid writing a sentence fragment.

An adjective clause does not express a complete thought, so it cannot stand alone as a sentence. To avoid writing a fragment, you must connect each adjective clause to a main clause. Read the examples below. Notice that the adjective clause follows the word that it describes.
Diane felt manipulated by her beagle Santana, whose big, brown eyes pleaded for another cookie.
Chewing with her mouth open is one reason why Fred cannot stand sitting across from his sister Melanie.
Growling ferociously, Oreo and Skeeter, Madison's two dogs, competed for the hardboiled egg that bounced across the kitchen floor.
Laughter erupted from Annamarie, who hiccupped for seven hours afterward.

Punctuate an adjective clause correctly.

Punctuating adjective clauses can be tricky. For each sentence, you will have to decide if the adjective clause is essential or nonessential and then use commas accordingly.
Essential clauses do not require commas. An adjective clause is essential when you need the information it provides. Look at this example:
The vegetables that people leave uneaten are often the most nutritious.
Vegetables is nonspecific. To know which ones we are talking about, we must have the information in the adjective clause. Thus, the adjective clause is essential and requires no commas.
If, however, we eliminate vegetables and choose a more specific noun instead, the adjective clause becomes nonessential and does require commas to separate it from the rest of the sentence. Read this revision:

Examples of Adjective Clauses

Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns, giving a description or more information. An adjective clause is simply a group of words with a subject and a verb that provide a description. The clause starts with a pronoun such as who, whom, that, or which or an adverb such as when, where and why.

Adjective Clauses In Action

Adjective clauses do not change the basic meaning of the sentence. In some cases, when they provide more information into a sentence, they need to be set off with commas.
Here are several examples of sentences with the adjective clauses underlined:
  • Pizza, which most people love, is not very healthy.
  • The people whose names are on the list will go to camp.
  • Grandpa remembers the old days when there was no television
  • Fruit that is grown organically is expensive.
  • Students who are intelligent get good grades.
  • Eco-friendly cars that run on electricity save gas.
  • I know someone whose father served in World War II.
  • Making noise when he eats is the main reason why Sue does not like to eat with her brother.
  • The kids who were called first will have the best chance of getting a seat.
  • Running a marathon, a race of twenty-six miles, takes a lot of training.
  • I enjoy telling people about Janet Evanovich whose latest book was fantastic.
  • The people waiting all night outside the Apple store are trying to purchase a new iPhone.
  • "He who can no longer pause to wonder and stand rapt in awe is as good as dead." - Albert Einstein
  • “Those who do not complain are never pitied.” - Jane Austen
  • “People demand freedom of speech to make up for the freedom of thought which they avoid.” - Søren Kierkegaard
  • “Never go to a doctor whose office plants have died.” - Erma Bombeck

Turning Adjective Clauses into Phrases

An adjective clause with a subject pronoun - such as which, that or who - can also be shortened into a phrase.
You can shorten an adjective clause in two ways:
  1. Omit the subject pronoun and verb.
  2. Omit the subject pronoun and change the verb to the form ending in "ing."
Here are some examples of how to create an adjective phrase:
  • Adjective Clause: The books, which are lost, are not really necessary.
  • Adjective Phrase: The books lost are not really necessary.

  • Adjective Clause: The girl who is running is my best friend.
  • Adjective Phrase: The girl running is my best friend.

  • Adjective Clause: His share of the money, which consists of $100,000, was given to him on Monday.
  • Adjective Phrase: His share of the money, consisting of $100,000, was given to him on Monday.

  • Adjective Clause: Something that smells bad may be rotten.
  • Adjective Phrase: Something smelling bad may be rotten.

Remember, the goal of an adjective clause is to add more information to a noun or a pronoun. You can add the information by including a few more words or by changing the adjective clause to a phrase.

The Subjunctive in Adjectival Clauses

Adjectives are words that modify a noun, describing or limiting it.  Examples of adjectives are: the new hat, the pretty dress, many intelligent students. An entire clause may serve an adjectival purpose, describing a noun or pronoun —the antecedent— in a sentence, for example:

  1. Do you have a dress which will go with these shoes?
  2. Yes, I have a dress which will be perfect.
  3. I don't see any dress (that) I like.
Note that in all three examples above, there is an adjectival clause (the part in bold-faced type) that modifies or refers back to the word dress. That is, the antecedent in all three cases is dress, but in each case the situation is different: in number one, the antecedent is indefinite, that is, we don't know if such a dress exists; in number two, the antecedent is definite, that is, it definitely is portrayed as existing; in number three, the antecedent is negated, that is, its existence is denied or at least doubtful.
The rule: In Spanish, the subjunctive is used in an adjectival clause when the antecedent is indefinite or unknown or is nonexistent or negated; in contrast, the indicative is used when the antecedent is a definite or existing one.
Main clause
Dependent clause
Adjectival clause
Mood of the
verb ladrar
(to bark)
Reason for the use of the
subjunctive or the indicative
un perro
que ladra mucho.
There is a definite antecedent, a dog which I own.
No tengo
un perro
que ladre mucho.
The antecedent is negated; such a dog doesn't exist.
un perro
que ladre mucho.
There is an indefinite antecedent; such a dog may or not exist.
(I have/don't have/want a dog that barks a lot.)
More examples of the three types of situations:
  1. The indicative is used in an adjectival clause when there is a definite antecedent:
Hay algo aquí que me gusta.
There is something here which I like.
Conoces al profesor que vive allí?
Do you know the professor who lives there?
Leo un libro que explica todo eso.
I'm reading a book which explains all that.
Tienen una criada que habla español.
They have a maid who speaks Spanish.
  1. The subjunctive is used in an adjectival clause when antecedent is negated:
No hay nada aquí que me guste.
There is nothing here I like.
No veo *a nadie que conozca.
I don't see anyone I know.
No recomendamos ningún libro que él haya escrito.
We don't recommend any book he has written.
  1. The subjunctive is used in an adjectival clause when there is an indefinite antecedent:
Hay algo aquí que te guste?
Is there anything here you like?
Quiero leer un libro que explique todo eso.
I want to read a book which explains all that.
Conoces *a alguien que viva cerca de aquí?
Do you know anyone who lives nearby?
Buscamos una criada que hable español.
We're looking a maid who speak Spanish. [We hope we can find one!]
*Note the use of the personal a before the pronouns alguien and nadie when used as direct objects.

Vocabulary :

Wake up                    : bangun tidur
Press the snooze botton: tekan tombol snooze (tidur sebentar)
Turn off the alarm    : mematikan alarm
Get up                        : bangun (dari tempat tidur)
Have a cup of coffee : menikmati kopi
Make breakfast         : membuat sarapan pagi
Read the newspaper : membaca koran
Have breakfast         : sarapan pagi
Have a shower         : mandi
Get dressed               : berpakaian
Brush one's hair      : keramas
Comb one's hair      : menyisir rambut
Brush one's teeth    : menggosok gigi
Put make-up on       : berias, dandan
Go home                   : pulang
Cook dinner              : memasak makan malam
Make dinner              : makan malam
Do one's homework : mengerjakan PR
Watch Television     : menonton TV
Watch the News       : nonton berita
Take the rubbish out : membuang sampah
Wash the dishes      : mencuci piring (kotor)
Feed the dog and cat : memberi makan anjing dan kucing
Go to bed                   : (Siap-siap) tidur
Go to the bathroom : Pergi ke kamar mandi
Take one's medication : Minum obat
Get into one's pyjamas : memakai baju tidur
Set the alarm            : mengatur waktu alarm
Lock the door            : mengunci pintu
Turn off the lights    : mematikan lampu
go to work                  : pergi bekerja
drive to work : mengendarai (mobil) ke tempat kerja
check one's email : memeriksa email (surat elektronik)
reply                           : menjawab
take a taxi                  : naik taksi
take a train                : naik kereta api
lunch meeting          : pertemuan di siang hari
take the bus              : naik bis
work on the computer : "komputeran"
morning tea : waktu istirahat pagi (untuk sekedar minum kopi.)
have lunch                : makan siang
afternoon tea            : waktu istirahat sore
file one's paper         : menyimpan arsip
organize one's files : menata arsip-arsip
make telephone calls : menelepon
organize a meeting : mengatur pertemuan
report to one's boss : melaporkan pada pimpinan
write a document     : menulis dokumen
Go grocery shopping : pergi belanja (di toko grosir)
Do the housework   : melakukan aktifitas rumah
Do the washing        :mencuci pakaian
Hang the clothes out : menjemur pakaian
Go to church             : pergi ke gereja
Fight with the neighbor : bertengkar dengan tetangga
Stay at home            : tetap di rumah
Go out with friends :pergi bersama teman-teman
Call one's parents    :menelepon orangtua
Water the garden     : menyiram kebun
Wash the car                        :mencuci mobil
Argue with one's partner :berdebat dengan rekan kerja
Seek vengeance      :balas dendam
Shine one's shoes : menyemir sepatu
Hire a movie                         :menyewa film
Go to the mall           : pergi ke Mall
Recharge one's travel card : mengisi tiket perjalanan
Argue with a bus driver :berurusan dengan supir bis
Recharge one's cell phone : mengisi pulsa


Popular posts from this blog