Friday, 16 March 2012


The kind of reading
There are different styles of reading for different situations. The technique you choose will depend on the purpose for reading. For example, you might be reading for enjoyment, information, or to complete a task. If you are exploring or reviewing, you might skim a document. If you're searching for information, you might scan for a particular word. To get detailed information, you might use a technique such as SQ4R. You need to adjust your reading speed and technique depending on your purpose.
            Many people consider skimming and scanning search techniques rather than reading strategies. However when reading large volumes of information, they may be more practical than reading. For example, you might be searching for specific information, looking for clues, or reviewing information .Harder - Web pages, novels, textbooks, manuals, magazines, newspapers, and mail are just a few of the things that people read every day. Effective and efficient readers learn to use many styles of reading for different purposes. Skimming, scanning, and critical reading are different styles of reading and information processing.
Skimming is glancing quickly over a text to get a general idea of the topic. skimming is used to quickly identify the main ideas of a text. When you read the newspaper, you're probably not reading it word-by-word, instead you're scanning the text. Skimming is done at a speed three to four times faster than normal reading. People often skim when they have lots of material to read in a limited amount of time. Use skimming when you want to see if an article may be of interest in your research. 
here are many strategies that can be used when skimming. Some people read the first and last paragraphs using headings, summarizes and other organizers as they move down the page or screen. You might read the title, subtitles, subheading, and illustrations. Consider reading the first sentence of each paragraph. This technique is useful when you're seeking specific information rather than reading for comprehension. Skimming works well to find dates, names, and places. It might be used to review graphs, tables, and
Scanning is a technique you often use when looking up a word in the telephone book or dictionary. You search for key words or ideas. In most cases, you know what you're looking for, so you're concentrating on finding a particular answer. Scanning involves moving your eyes quickly down the page seeking specific words and phrases. Scanning is also used when you first find a resource to determine whether it will answer your questions. Once you've scanned the document, you might go back and skim it. 
When scanning, look for the author's use of organizers such as numbers, letters, steps, or the words, first, second, or next. Look for words that are bold faced, italics, or in a different font size, style, or color. Sometimes the author will put key ideas in the margin.Reading off a computer screen has become a growing concern. Research shows that people have more difficulty reading off a computer screen than off paper. Although they can read and comprehend at the same rate as paper, skimming on the computer is much slower than on pap
Scanning is looking for key words and phrases that will give you the specific information you need.
When scanning:
            In everyday life, to read extensively means to read widely and in quantity. In the early part of this century, extensive reading took on a special meaning in the context of teaching modern languages. Pioneers such as Harold Palmer in Britain and Michael West in India worked out the theory and practice of extensive reading as an approach to foreign language teaching in general, and to the teaching of foreign language reading in particular.Palmer chose the term extensive reading to distinguish it from intensive reading (1968, p. 137; 1964, p. 113). The dichotomy is still a useful one. Intensive reading often refers to the careful reading (or translation) of shorter, more difficult foreign language texts with the goal of complete and detailed understanding. Intensive reading is also associated with the teaching of reading in terms of its component skills. Texts are studied intensively in order to introduce and practice reading skills such as distinguishing the main idea of a text from the detail, finding pronoun referents, or guessing the meaning of unknown words.

Extensive reading, in contrast, is generally associated with reading large amounts with the aim of getting an overall understanding of the material. Readers are more concerned with the meaning of the text than the meaning of individual words or sentences. Palmer, incidentally, saw the pedagogic value of both types of reading. For a graphic depiction of the differences between intensive and extensive reading, see the chart in "Introducing Extensive Reading" by Roberta Welch (My Share this issue).

            Extensive reading as an approach to teaching reading may be thought of in terms of purpose or outcome: Beatrice Mikulecky, for example, calls it pleasure reading (1990). It can also be viewed as a teaching procedure, as when Stephen Krashen (1993) terms it free voluntary reading,  Extensive reading could be:. the main focus of a reading course with a combination of, for example, work with  a    class reader (i.e., students reading a class set of books), SSR, follow-up activities such as students' oral
Intensive is the main purpose of most reading  to understand the meaning of the text, usually as quickly as possible, so extensive reading is more like "real" reading than intensive reading is. In order to become good readers, students need to practice reading extensively as well as intensively. It is good for students to read intensively sometimes so they can study a text's grammar and vocabulary. They also need to read intensively if a text is very difficult. But it is equally important for them to spend time reading texts in an extensive style, focusing mainly on the meaning of the text, not stopping to look up every new word. Furthermore, to become good readers, students need to read a lot - entire books or magazines - instead of just short articles or passages from English textbooks. Just as a runner must run a lot every day in order to build muscles for running, good readers need to read frequently and extensively to
            book reports, and homework reading;an add-on to an ongoing reading course with, for example, the first half-hour of class devoted to SSR, and students reading self-selected books for homework;an extra-curricular activity with a teacher guiding and encouraging interested students who read books in their spare time and meet regularly to discuss them. Look for key words, headings, and terms in bold or italics that refer to information you need.Read the first and last sentences of the paragraphs on the page to see if they connect to information you need.

Day, R. R., & Bamford, J. (forthcoming). Extensive reading in the second language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dupuy, B., Tse, L., & Cook, T. (1996). Bringing books into the classroom: First steps in turning college-level ESL students into readers. TESOL Journal, 5(4), 10-15.

Eskey, D. (1995). Remarks made at Colloquium on Research in Reading in a Second Language. TESOL '95. Long Beach, California.

Honeyfield, J. (1977). Simplification. TESOL Quarterly, 11(4), 431-440.

Krashen, S. (1993). The power of reading: Insights from the research. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited.

Mikulecky, B. (1990). A short course in teaching reading skills. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Moffett, J. (1992). Harmonic learning: Keynoting school reform. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, Heinemann.

Palmer, H. E. (1917). The scientific study and teaching of languages. London: Harrap. (Reissued in 1968 by Oxford University Press).

Palmer, H. E. (1921). Principles of language-study. London: Harrap. (Reissued in 1964 by Oxford University Press).

Swaffar, J. K. (1985). Reading authentic texts in a foreign language: A cognitive model. The Modern Language Journal, 69(1), 15-34.

Tomlinson, B. (1994, November). Authentic versus graded. EFL Gazette. No. 178. p. 22.

West, M. (1955). Learning to read a foreign language (2nd ed.). London: Longmans, Green. (First published 1926).

Widdowson, H. G. (1979). Explorations in applied linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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